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Default Data Reference

Default Data Element Data Source
Grid Electricity Emission Factor "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2013). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion – Highlights 2013. GHG Emission Factors. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/. Based on data from World CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion © OECD/IEA 2014, IEA Publishing; modified by ICF International. Licence: http://www.iea.org/t&c/termsandconditions/.
IGES (Institute for Global Environmental Strategies)(2015). List of Grid Emission Factors – Version 2015/10. A. Kuriyama (ed.). Accessed 15 March 2016: http://pub.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/view.php?docid=2136"
Fuel-Specific Emission Factor "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, H.S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, and K. Tanabe (eds.). Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. Default Emission Factors retrieved from Volume 2. Energy, Chapter 2 Stationary Combustion. Accessed December, 2015: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/2_Volume2/V2_2_Ch2_Stationary_Combustion.pdf."
Renewable Energy Emission Factor Expert judgment
GWP Methane "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2007a). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Accessed January, 2015."
GWP Nitrogen Dioxide "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2007a). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Accessed January, 2015."
Grid Technical Line Loss Factor "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2015). OECD/IEA 2015. Electricity Information 2015 edition. http://www.iea.org/t&c/termsandconditions/
Expert Judgment."
Capacity Factor - Solar Heating "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. Converting Installed Solar Collector Area & Power Capacity into Estimated Annual Solar Collector Energy Output. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/documents/statistics/Calculation_Method.pdf & http://www.estif.org/no_cache/news/single-news-item/archive/2011/march/article/common-calculation-method-of-the-solar-thermal-energy-produced-worldwide-now-available/?tx_ttnews."
Capacity Factor - Solar Photovoltaic "Calculated with: NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration). (2012). Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008) 22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation on a Tilted Surface. Accessed 20 October, 2012. SSE Database found at https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse_table"
Capacity Factor - Wind Turbine "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). World Statistics. Wind Power Generation Capacity and Total Energy Generated. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea.org/statistics/."
Capacity Factor - Hydroelectric "Intpow. (2013). World Hydropower Potential. Hydroelectric Capacity Factors. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.intpow.com/index.php?id=487&download=1."
Capacity Factor - Geothermal: Power Generation "Bertani, Ruggero. (2012). Geothermal power generation in the world 2005–2010 update report. GeoThermPowerics (41), 1-29. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375650511000526
Capacity Factor - Geothermal: Direct Heat "Lund, J. W, Freeston, D. H., Boyd, T.L. (2010). Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375650511000344."
Average System Lifetime - Solar Photovoltaic Expert judgment
"DOE (Department of Energy). (2013). Weather Data for EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software. Accessed October, 2013."
Average System Lifetime - Solar Heating Expert judgment
Average System Lifetime - Wind Turbine Expert judgment
Average System Lifetime - Hydroelectric "FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). (2011). Hydropower Licensing. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ferc.gov/for-citizens/citizen-guides/hydro-guide.asp ."
Average System Lifetime - Geothermal Power & Direct Heat "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2013). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion – Highlights 2013. GHG Emission Factors. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/ ."
Average System Lifetime - Geothermal Heat Pump "DOE (Department of Energy). (2012). Geothermal Heat Pumps Lifetime. Accessed October, 2013: http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/Geothermal-heat-pumps"
Average System Lifetime - Biomass Energy CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013a). ACM0006 “Consolidated methodology for electricity and heat generation from biomass”. CDM Executive Board.
Average System Lifetime - Anaerobic Digesters CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013b). ACM0020 “Co-firing of biomass residues for heat generation and/or electricity generation in grid connected power plants”. CDM Executive Board.
Average System Lifetime - Appliance Efficiency Improvements Expert judgment
Average System Lifetime - Buidling Energy Efficiency "IEESAG (Illinois Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Advisory Group). (2012). Energy Efficiency Technical Reference Manual Final Technical Version, August 20th, 2012. Accessed October, 2013: http://ilsag.org/meeting_materials."
Degradation Rate - Solar Photovoltaic "NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). (2012). Photovoltaic Degradation Rates. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51664.pdf."
Degradation Rate - Solar Heating Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Wind Turbine "CEC (California Energy Commission). (2010). Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CEC-200-2009-017/CEC-200-2009-017-SF.PDF"
Degradation Rate - Hydroelectric Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Geothermal Direct Heat Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Geothermal Power Generation Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Geothermal Heat Pumps Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Biomass Energy CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013a). ACM0006 “Consolidated methodology for electricity and heat generation from biomass”. CDM Executive Board.
Degradation Rate - Anaerobic Digesters Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Appliance Efficiency Improvements Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Buidling Energy Efficiency Expert judgment
Diesel Generator Efficiency Factor Expert judgment
Coefficient of Performance - Geothermal: Heat Pumps IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. Converting Installed Solar Collector Area & Power Capacity into Estimated Annual Solar Collector Energy Output. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/documents/statistics/Calculation_Method.pdf & http://www.estif.org/no_cache/news/single-news-item/archive/2011/march/article/common-calculation-method-of-the-solar-thermal-energy-produced-worldwide-now-available/?tx_ttnews.
Coefficient of Conversion - Solar Heating IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. Converting Installed Solar Collector Area & Power Capacity into Estimated Annual Solar Collector Energy Output. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/documents/statistics/Calculation_Method.pdf & http://www.estif.org/no_cache/news/single-news-item/archive/2011/march/article/common-calculation-method-of-the-solar-thermal-energy-produced-worldwide-now-available/?tx_ttnews.
Cooling Degree Days (CDD) "DOE (Department of Energy). (2013). Weather Data for EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software. Accessed October, 2013: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/weatherdata_about.cfm."
Heating Degree Days (HDD) "DOE (Department of Energy). (2013). Weather Data for EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software. Accessed October, 2013: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/weatherdata_about.cfm."
Full Load Hours - Geothermal: Heat Pumps "IEESAG (Illinois Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Advisory Group). (2012). Energy Efficiency Technical Reference Manual Final Technical Version, August 20th, 2012. Accessed October, 2013: http://ilsag.org/meeting_materials."
Solar Irradiation Rates "Calculated with: NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration). (2012). Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008) 22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation on a Tilted Surface. Accessed 20 October, 2012. SSE Database found at https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse_table"
Enthalpy - Geothermal: Direct Heat "NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). (2011). Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems. Accessed October, 2013: http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/fluid/."
Length of Piping per Ton Heating or Cooling - Geothermal IEC (Iowa Energy Center). (2009). Introduction to Geothermal Heat Pump Systems. http://www.iowaenergycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IHPA2009Geo101A_Intro.pdf
Flow Rate per Ton Heating or Cooling - Geothermal IEC (Iowa Energy Center). (2009). Introduction to Geothermal Heat Pump Systems. http://www.iowaenergycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IHPA2009Geo101A_Intro.pdf
Appliance Cooling Constants "EPA ( Environmental Protection Agency) Energy Star. (2007). Energy Star Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and/or Freezers. Partner Commitments. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/product_specs/program_reqs/refrig_prog_req.pdf."
Appliance Volume Constants "EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Energy Star. (2007). Energy Star Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and/or Freezers. Partner Commitments. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/product_specs/program_reqs/refrig_prog_req.pdf."
Solar Photovoltaic Tracker Premium Expert judgment
Building Energy Cooling/Heating Constants Confidential Industry Data & Expert Judgment
Appliance Energy Consumption Constants Confidential Industry Data.
Biomass Energy Leakage Factor CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013a). ACM0006 “Consolidated methodology for electricity and heat generation from biomass”. CDM Executive Board.
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013b). ACM0020 “Co-firing of biomass residues for heat generation and/or electricity generation in grid connected power plants”. CDM Executive Board.
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013c). AM0036 “Fuel switch from fossil fuels to biomass residues in heat generation equipment” CDM Executive Board.
Biomass Energy Cultivation Emission Factors "EU (European Union). (2010a). “Commission Staff Working Document: Impact Assessment - Sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling”. COM (2010) 11 Final. SEC (2010) 65 Final."
Biomass Energy Processing Emission Factors "EU (European Union). (2010a). “Commission Staff Working Document: Impact Assessment - Sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling”. COM (2010) 11 Final. SEC (2010) 65 Final."
Biomass Energy Combustion Emission Factors "BEC (Biomass Energy Centre). (2013). “Carbon emissions of different fuels”. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=75,163182&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL"
"IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006a). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, H.S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, and K. Tanabe (eds.). Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. Default Emission Factors retrieved from Volume 2. Energy, Chapter 2 Stationary Combustion. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/2_Volume2/V2_2_Ch2_Stationary_Combustion.pdf."
"EPA (Environment Protection Agency). (1993). “Emission Factor Documentation for AP-42 Section 1.8 Bagasse Combustion in Sugar Mills”. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC."
"Ghani, W. A. W, A. K., and Alias, A. B. (2013). Sustainable Power Generation through Co-Combustion of Agricultural Residues with Coal in Existing Coal Power Plant. Chapter 16 of New Developments in Renewable Energy. Found online at http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-developments-in-renewable-energy/sustainable-power-generation-through-co-combustion-of-agricultural-residues-with-coal-in-existing-co"
"Jagustyn, B., Patyna, I., and Skawinska, A. (2013). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Palm Kernel Shell as agro biomass used in the energy industry. CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 552-559. Found online at http://www.chemikinternational.com/year-2013/year-2013-issue-6/evaluation-of-physicochemical-properties-of-palm-kernel-shell-as-agro-biomass-used-in-the-energy-industry/"
Nitrogen Dioxide Emission Factor "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Fuel Energy Content of Methane - Anaerobic Digesters "Bracmort, Kelsi. (2010). Anaerobic Digestion: Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction and Energy Generation. Accessed September 2015: http://nationalaglawcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/crs/R40667.pdf"
"EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2004). A Manual for Developing Biogas Systems at commercial Farms in the United States. Accessed August 5, 2015: http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-12/documents/agstar-handbook.pdf"
Methane Fraction for Biogas "EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2004). A Manual for Developing Biogas Systems at commercial Farms in the United States. Accessed August 5, 2015: http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-12/documents/agstar-handbook.pdf"
"EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2011). Market Opportunities for Biogas Recovery Systems at U.S. Livestock Facilities. Accessed December, 2015: http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-12/documents/biogas_recovery_systems_screenres.pdf"
Methane Density "Wischnewski, Berndt. (2013). Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of methane. Accessed August 8, 2013: http://www.peacesoftware.de/einigewerte/methan_e.html."
Volatile Solid Production Rate "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Methane Production Capacity "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Methane Conversion Factor "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Anaerobic Digester Fugitive Emission Rate "UNFCCC (United Nations Framework for Climate Change Convention). (2005). Draft revision to approved baseline methodology AM0013: Forced methane extraction from organic waste-water treatment plants for grid-connected electricity supply and/or heat production/ Version 02. Accessed October, 2013: http://cdm.unfccc.int/Panels/meth/meeting/05/Meth15_AM0013_revision.pdf."
Heat Rate (ICE) - Anaerobic Digester "EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2015). Catalog of CHP Technologies. Section 5. Technology Characterization – Microturbines. Accessed December 17, 2015: http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/catalog_of_chp_technologies_section_5._characterization_-_microturbines.pdf"
Nitrogen Excretion Rates "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."

Grid Electricity Emission Factor Sources

Emission factors are derived from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) 2017 if available, or the International Energy Agency (IEA) 2013 if not. IGES contains marginal grid emission factors which take into account both existing electricity sources on the operating margin as well as future planned sources on the build margin. IEA contains average grid emission factors which take into account only existing electricity sources. For context, the following emission factors show the values for some of the most common energy sources for grid electricity: coal, 1026 tCO2e/kWh; natural gas, 465 tCO2e/kWh; oil, 811 tCO2e/kWh; and renewables, 0 tCO2e/kWh.

Country NameCLEER Tool Data Source for Grid Electricity Emission Factor
AfghanistanIGES 2015
AlbaniaIGES 2015
AlgeriaIGES 2015
AndorraIEA 2013
AngolaIGES 2015
Antigua and BarbudaIGES 2015
ArgentinaIGES 2015
ArmeniaIGES 2015
AustraliaIEA 2013
AustriaIEA 2013
AzerbaijanIGES 2015
Bahamas, TheIGES 2015
BahrainIGES 2015
BangladeshIGES 2015
BarbadosIGES 2015
BelarusIEA 2013
BelgiumIEA 2013
BelizeIGES 2015
BeninIGES 2015
BhutanIGES 2015
BoliviaIGES 2015
Bosnia and HerzegovinaIGES 2015
BotswanaIGES 2015
BrazilIGES 2015
Brunei DarussalamIGES 2015
BulgariaIEA 2013
Burkina FasoIGES 2015
BurmaIGES 2015
BurundiIGES 2015
CambodiaIGES 2015
CameroonIGES 2015
CanadaIEA 2013
Cape VerdeIGES 2015
Central African RepublicIGES 2015
ChadIGES 2015
ChileIGES 2015
ChinaIGES 2015
ColombiaIGES 2015
ComorosIGES 2015
CongoIGES 2015
Congo, Democratic RepublicIGES 2015
Costa RicaIGES 2015
Côte d'IvoireIGES 2015
CroatiaIEA 2013
CubaIGES 2015
CyprusIGES 2015
Czech RepublicIEA 2013
DenmarkIEA 2013
DjiboutiIGES 2015
DominicaIGES 2015
Dominican RepublicIGES 2015
EcuadorIGES 2015
EgyptIGES 2015
El SalvadorIGES 2015
Equatorial GuineaIGES 2015
EritreaIGES 2015
EstoniaIEA 2013
EthiopiaIGES 2015
FijiIGES 2015
FinlandIEA 2013
FranceIEA 2013
GabonIGES 2015
Gambia, TheIGES 2015
GeorgiaIGES 2015
GermanyIEA 2013
GhanaIGES 2015
GreeceIEA 2013
GrenadaIGES 2015
GuatemalaIGES 2015
GuineaIGES 2015
Guinea-BissauIGES 2015
GuyanaIGES 2015
HaitiIGES 2015
Holy SeeIEA 2013
HondurasIGES 2015
HungaryIEA 2013
IcelandIEA 2013
IndiaIGES 2015
IndonesiaIGES 2015
IranIGES 2015
IraqIGES 2015
IrelandIEA 2013
IsraelIGES 2015
ItalyIEA 2013
JamaicaIGES 2015
JapanIGES 2015
JordanIGES 2015
KazakhstanIGES 2015
KenyaIGES 2015
KiribatiIEA 2013
Korea, NorthIGES 2015
Korea, SouthIGES 2015
KosovoIEA 2013
KuwaitIGES 2015
KyrgyzstanIGES 2015
LaosIGES 2015
LatviaIEA 2013
LebanonIGES 2015
LesothoIGES 2015
LiberiaIGES 2015
LibyaIGES 2015
LiechtensteinIEA 2013
LithuaniaIEA 2013
LuxembourgIEA 2013
Macedonia, FYRIGES 2015
MadagascarIGES 2015
MalawiIGES 2015
MalaysiaIGES 2015
MaldivesIGES 2015
MaliIGES 2015
MaltaIEA 2013
Marshall IslandsIEA 2013
MauritaniaIGES 2015
MauritiusIGES 2015
MexicoIGES 2015
Micronesia, Federated States ofIEA 2013
MoldovaIEA 2013
MonacoIEA 2013
MongoliaIGES 2015
MontenegroIGES 2015
MoroccoIGES 2015
MozambiqueIGES 2015
NamibiaIGES 2015
NauruIEA 2013
NepalIGES 2015
NetherlandsIEA 2013
New ZealandIEA 2013
NicaraguaIGES 2015
NigerIGES 2015
NigeriaIGES 2015
NorwayIEA 2013
OmanIGES 2015
PakistanIGES 2015
PalauIEA 2013
PanamaIGES 2015
Papua New GuineaIGES 2015
ParaguayIGES 2015
PeruIGES 2015
PhilippinesIGES 2015
PolandIEA 2013
PortugalIEA 2013
QatarIGES 2015
RomaniaIEA 2013
RussiaIEA 2013
RwandaIGES 2015
Saint Kitts and NevisIGES 2015
Saint LuciaIGES 2015
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesIGES 2015
SamoaIEA 2013
San MarinoIEA 2013
Sao Tome and PrincipeIGES 2015
Saudi ArabiaIGES 2015
SenegalIGES 2015
SerbiaIGES 2015
SeychellesIGES 2015
Sierra LeoneIGES 2015
SingaporeIGES 2015
SlovakiaIEA 2013
SloveniaIEA 2013
Solomon IslandsIEA 2013
SomaliaIGES 2015
South AfricaIGES 2015
South SudanIGES 2015
SpainIEA 2013
Sri LankaIGES 2015
SudanIGES 2015
SurinameIGES 2015
SwazilandIGES 2015
SwedenIEA 2013
SwitzerlandIEA 2013
SyriaIGES 2015
TajikistanIGES 2015
TanzaniaIGES 2015
ThailandIGES 2015
Timor-LesteIGES 2015
TogoIGES 2015
TongaIEA 2013
Trinidad and TobagoIGES 2015
TunisiaIGES 2015
TurkeyIEA 2013
TurkmenistanIGES 2015
TuvaluIEA 2013
UgandaIGES 2015
UkraineIEA 2013
United Arab EmiratesIGES 2015
United KingdomIEA 2013
United StatesIEA 2013
UruguayIGES 2015
UzbekistanIGES 2015
VanuatuIEA 2013
VenezuelaIGES 2015
VietnamIGES 2015
YemenIGES 2015
ZambiaIGES 2015
ZimbabweIGES 2015