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Default Data Reference

Default Data Element Data Source
Grid Electricity Emission Factor "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2013). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion – Highlights 2013. GHG Emission Factors. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea.org/co2highlights. Based on data from World CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion © OECD/IEA 2014, IEA Publishing; modified by ICF International. Licence: http://www.iea.org/t&c/termsandconditions.
IGES (Institute for Global Environmental Strategies) (2018). List of Grid Emission Factors – Version 2018/10.2. Accessed 15 June 2018: https://pub.iges.or.jp/pub/iges-list-grid-emission-factors"
Fuel-Specific Emission Factor "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, H.S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, and K. Tanabe (eds.). Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. Default Emission Factors retrieved from Volume 2. Energy, Chapter 2 Stationary Combustion. Accessed December, 2015: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/2_Volume2/V2_2_Ch2_Stationary_Combustion.pdf."
Renewable Energy Emission Factor Expert judgment
GWP Methane "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2007a). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Accessed January, 2015."
GWP Nitrogen Dioxide "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2007a). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Accessed January, 2015."
Grid Technical Line Loss Factor "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2015). OECD/IEA 2015. Electricity Information 2015 edition. http://www.iea.org/t&c/termsandconditions/
Expert Judgment."
Capacity Factor - Solar Heating "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. Converting Installed Solar Collector Area & Power Capacity into Estimated Annual Solar Collector Energy Output. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/documents/statistics/Calculation_Method.pdf & http://www.estif.org/no_cache/news/single-news-item/archive/2011/march/article/common-calculation-method-of-the-solar-thermal-energy-produced-worldwide-now-available/?tx_ttnews."
Capacity Factor - Solar Photovoltaic "Calculated with: NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration). (2012). Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008) 22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation on a Tilted Surface. Accessed 20 October, 2012. SSE Database found at https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse_table"
Capacity Factor - Wind Turbine "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). World Statistics. Wind Power Generation Capacity and Total Energy Generated. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea.org/statistics/."
Capacity Factor - Hydroelectric "Intpow. (2013). World Hydropower Potential. Hydroelectric Capacity Factors. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.intpow.com/index.php?id=487&download=1."
Capacity Factor - Geothermal: Power Generation "Bertani, Ruggero. (2012). Geothermal power generation in the world 2005–2010 update report. GeoThermPowerics (41), 1-29. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375650511000526
Capacity Factor - Geothermal: Direct Heat "Lund, J. W, Freeston, D. H., Boyd, T.L. (2010). Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375650511000344."
Average System Lifetime - Solar Photovoltaic Expert judgment
"DOE (Department of Energy). (2013). Weather Data for EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software. Accessed October, 2013."
Average System Lifetime - Solar Heating Expert judgment
Average System Lifetime - Wind Turbine Expert judgment
Average System Lifetime - Hydroelectric "FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). (2011). Hydropower Licensing. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ferc.gov/for-citizens/citizen-guides/hydro-guide.asp ."
Average System Lifetime - Geothermal Power & Direct Heat "IEA (International Energy Agency). (2013). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion – Highlights 2013. GHG Emission Factors. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/ ."
Average System Lifetime - Geothermal Heat Pump "DOE (Department of Energy). (2012). Geothermal Heat Pumps Lifetime. Accessed October, 2013: http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/Geothermal-heat-pumps"
Average System Lifetime - Biomass Energy CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013a). ACM0006 “Consolidated methodology for electricity and heat generation from biomass”. CDM Executive Board.
Average System Lifetime - Anaerobic Digesters CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013b). ACM0020 “Co-firing of biomass residues for heat generation and/or electricity generation in grid connected power plants”. CDM Executive Board.
Average System Lifetime - Appliance Efficiency Improvements Expert judgment
Average System Lifetime - Buidling Energy Efficiency "IEESAG (Illinois Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Advisory Group). (2012). Energy Efficiency Technical Reference Manual Final Technical Version, August 20th, 2012. Accessed October, 2013: http://ilsag.org/meeting_materials."
Degradation Rate - Solar Photovoltaic "NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). (2012). Photovoltaic Degradation Rates. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51664.pdf."
Degradation Rate - Solar Heating Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Wind Turbine "CEC (California Energy Commission). (2010). Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CEC-200-2009-017/CEC-200-2009-017-SF.PDF"
Degradation Rate - Hydroelectric Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Geothermal Direct Heat Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Geothermal Power Generation Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Geothermal Heat Pumps Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Biomass Energy CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013a). ACM0006 “Consolidated methodology for electricity and heat generation from biomass”. CDM Executive Board.
Degradation Rate - Anaerobic Digesters Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Appliance Efficiency Improvements Expert judgment
Degradation Rate - Buidling Energy Efficiency Expert judgment
Diesel Generator Efficiency Factor Expert judgment
Coefficient of Performance - Geothermal: Heat Pumps IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. Converting Installed Solar Collector Area & Power Capacity into Estimated Annual Solar Collector Energy Output. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/documents/statistics/Calculation_Method.pdf & http://www.estif.org/no_cache/news/single-news-item/archive/2011/march/article/common-calculation-method-of-the-solar-thermal-energy-produced-worldwide-now-available/?tx_ttnews.
Coefficient of Conversion - Solar Heating IEA (International Energy Agency). (2011). Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. Converting Installed Solar Collector Area & Power Capacity into Estimated Annual Solar Collector Energy Output. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/documents/statistics/Calculation_Method.pdf & http://www.estif.org/no_cache/news/single-news-item/archive/2011/march/article/common-calculation-method-of-the-solar-thermal-energy-produced-worldwide-now-available/?tx_ttnews.
Cooling Degree Days (CDD) "DOE (Department of Energy). (2013). Weather Data for EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software. Accessed October, 2013: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/weatherdata_about.cfm."
Heating Degree Days (HDD) "DOE (Department of Energy). (2013). Weather Data for EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software. Accessed October, 2013: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/weatherdata_about.cfm."
Full Load Hours - Geothermal: Heat Pumps "IEESAG (Illinois Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Advisory Group). (2012). Energy Efficiency Technical Reference Manual Final Technical Version, August 20th, 2012. Accessed October, 2013: http://ilsag.org/meeting_materials."
Solar Irradiation Rates "Calculated with: NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration). (2012). Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008) 22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation on a Tilted Surface. Accessed 20 October, 2012. SSE Database found at https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse_table"
Enthalpy - Geothermal: Direct Heat "NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). (2011). Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems. Accessed October, 2013: http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/fluid/."
Length of Piping per Ton Heating or Cooling - Geothermal IEC (Iowa Energy Center). (2009). Introduction to Geothermal Heat Pump Systems. http://www.iowaenergycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IHPA2009Geo101A_Intro.pdf
Flow Rate per Ton Heating or Cooling - Geothermal IEC (Iowa Energy Center). (2009). Introduction to Geothermal Heat Pump Systems. http://www.iowaenergycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/IHPA2009Geo101A_Intro.pdf
Appliance Cooling Constants "EPA ( Environmental Protection Agency) Energy Star. (2007). Energy Star Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and/or Freezers. Partner Commitments. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/product_specs/program_reqs/refrig_prog_req.pdf."
Appliance Volume Constants "EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Energy Star. (2007). Energy Star Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and/or Freezers. Partner Commitments. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/product_specs/program_reqs/refrig_prog_req.pdf."
Solar Photovoltaic Tracker Premium Expert judgment
Building Energy Cooling/Heating Constants Confidential Industry Data & Expert Judgment
Appliance Energy Consumption Constants Confidential Industry Data.
Biomass Energy Leakage Factor CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013a). ACM0006 “Consolidated methodology for electricity and heat generation from biomass”. CDM Executive Board.
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013b). ACM0020 “Co-firing of biomass residues for heat generation and/or electricity generation in grid connected power plants”. CDM Executive Board.
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). (2013c). AM0036 “Fuel switch from fossil fuels to biomass residues in heat generation equipment” CDM Executive Board.
Biomass Energy Cultivation Emission Factors "EU (European Union). (2010a). “Commission Staff Working Document: Impact Assessment - Sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling”. COM (2010) 11 Final. SEC (2010) 65 Final."
Biomass Energy Processing Emission Factors "EU (European Union). (2010a). “Commission Staff Working Document: Impact Assessment - Sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling”. COM (2010) 11 Final. SEC (2010) 65 Final."
Biomass Energy Combustion Emission Factors "BEC (Biomass Energy Centre). (2013). “Carbon emissions of different fuels”. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=75,163182&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL"
"IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006a). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, H.S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, and K. Tanabe (eds.). Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. Default Emission Factors retrieved from Volume 2. Energy, Chapter 2 Stationary Combustion. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/2_Volume2/V2_2_Ch2_Stationary_Combustion.pdf."
"EPA (Environment Protection Agency). (1993). “Emission Factor Documentation for AP-42 Section 1.8 Bagasse Combustion in Sugar Mills”. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC."
"Ghani, W. A. W, A. K., and Alias, A. B. (2013). Sustainable Power Generation through Co-Combustion of Agricultural Residues with Coal in Existing Coal Power Plant. Chapter 16 of New Developments in Renewable Energy. Found online at http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-developments-in-renewable-energy/sustainable-power-generation-through-co-combustion-of-agricultural-residues-with-coal-in-existing-co"
"Jagustyn, B., Patyna, I., and Skawinska, A. (2013). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Palm Kernel Shell as agro biomass used in the energy industry. CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 552-559. Found online at http://www.chemikinternational.com/year-2013/year-2013-issue-6/evaluation-of-physicochemical-properties-of-palm-kernel-shell-as-agro-biomass-used-in-the-energy-industry/"
Nitrogen Dioxide Emission Factor "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Fuel Energy Content of Methane - Anaerobic Digesters "Bracmort, Kelsi. (2010). Anaerobic Digestion: Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction and Energy Generation. Accessed September 2015: http://nationalaglawcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/crs/R40667.pdf"
"EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2004). A Manual for Developing Biogas Systems at commercial Farms in the United States. Accessed August 5, 2015: http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-12/documents/agstar-handbook.pdf"
Methane Fraction for Biogas "EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2004). A Manual for Developing Biogas Systems at commercial Farms in the United States. Accessed August 5, 2015: http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-12/documents/agstar-handbook.pdf"
"EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2011). Market Opportunities for Biogas Recovery Systems at U.S. Livestock Facilities. Accessed December, 2015: http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-12/documents/biogas_recovery_systems_screenres.pdf"
Methane Density "Wischnewski, Berndt. (2013). Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of methane. Accessed August 8, 2013: http://www.peacesoftware.de/einigewerte/methan_e.html."
Volatile Solid Production Rate "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Methane Production Capacity "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Methane Conversion Factor "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."
Anaerobic Digester Fugitive Emission Rate "UNFCCC (United Nations Framework for Climate Change Convention). (2005). Draft revision to approved baseline methodology AM0013: Forced methane extraction from organic waste-water treatment plants for grid-connected electricity supply and/or heat production/ Version 02. Accessed October, 2013: http://cdm.unfccc.int/Panels/meth/meeting/05/Meth15_AM0013_revision.pdf."
Heat Rate (ICE) - Anaerobic Digester "EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2015). Catalog of CHP Technologies. Section 5. Technology Characterization – Microturbines. Accessed December 17, 2015: http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/catalog_of_chp_technologies_section_5._characterization_-_microturbines.pdf"
Nitrogen Excretion Rates "IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2006b). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Japan: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Chapter 10. Emissions from Livestock and Manure Management. Accessed October, 2013: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf."

Grid Electricity Emission Factor Sources

Emission factors are derived from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) 2018 if available, or the International Energy Agency (IEA) 2013 if not. IGES contains marginal grid emission factors which take into account both existing electricity sources on the operating margin as well as future planned sources on the build margin. IEA contains average grid emission factors which take into account only existing electricity sources. For context, the following emission factors show the values for some of the most common energy sources for grid electricity: coal, 1026 tCO2e/kWh; natural gas, 465 tCO2e/kWh; oil, 811 tCO2e/kWh; and renewables, 0 tCO2e/kWh.

Country NameCLEER Tool Data Source for Grid Electricity Emission Factor
AfghanistanIGES 2018
AlbaniaIGES 2018
AlgeriaIGES 2018
AndorraIEA 2013
AngolaIGES 2018
Antigua and BarbudaIGES 2018
ArgentinaIGES 2018
ArmeniaIGES 2018
AustraliaIEA 2013
AustriaIEA 2013
AzerbaijanIGES 2018
Bahamas, TheIGES 2018
BahrainIGES 2018
BangladeshIGES 2018
BarbadosIGES 2018
BelarusIEA 2013
BelgiumIEA 2013
BelizeIGES 2018
BeninIGES 2018
BhutanIGES 2018
BoliviaIGES 2018
Bosnia and HerzegovinaIGES 2018
BotswanaIGES 2018
BrazilIGES 2018
Brunei DarussalamIGES 2018
BulgariaIEA 2013
Burkina FasoIGES 2018
BurmaIGES 2018
BurundiIGES 2018
CambodiaIGES 2018
CameroonIGES 2018
CanadaIEA 2013
Cape VerdeIGES 2018
Central African RepublicIGES 2018
ChadIGES 2018
ChileIGES 2018
ChinaIGES 2018
ColombiaIGES 2018
ComorosIGES 2018
CongoIGES 2018
Congo, Democratic RepublicIGES 2018
Costa RicaIGES 2018
Côte d'IvoireIGES 2018
CroatiaIEA 2013
CubaIGES 2018
CyprusIGES 2018
Czech RepublicIEA 2013
DenmarkIEA 2013
DjiboutiIGES 2018
DominicaIGES 2018
Dominican RepublicIGES 2018
EcuadorIGES 2018
EgyptIGES 2018
El SalvadorIGES 2018
Equatorial GuineaIGES 2018
EritreaIGES 2018
EstoniaIEA 2013
EthiopiaIGES 2018
FijiIGES 2018
FinlandIEA 2013
FranceIEA 2013
GabonIGES 2018
Gambia, TheIGES 2018
GeorgiaIGES 2018
GermanyIEA 2013
GhanaIGES 2018
GreeceIEA 2013
GrenadaIGES 2018
GuatemalaIGES 2018
GuineaIGES 2018
Guinea-BissauIGES 2018
GuyanaIGES 2018
HaitiIGES 2018
Holy SeeIEA 2013
HondurasIGES 2018
HungaryIEA 2013
IcelandIEA 2013
IndiaIGES 2018
IndonesiaIGES 2018
IranIGES 2018
IraqIGES 2018
IrelandIEA 2013
IsraelIGES 2018
ItalyIEA 2013
JamaicaIGES 2018
JapanIGES 2018
JordanIGES 2018
KazakhstanIGES 2018
KenyaIGES 2018
KiribatiIEA 2013
Korea, NorthIGES 2018
Korea, SouthIGES 2018
KosovoIEA 2013
KuwaitIGES 2018
KyrgyzstanIGES 2018
LaosIGES 2018
LatviaIEA 2013
LebanonIGES 2018
LesothoIGES 2018
LiberiaIGES 2018
LibyaIGES 2018
LiechtensteinIEA 2013
LithuaniaIEA 2013
LuxembourgIEA 2013
Macedonia, FYRIGES 2018
MadagascarIGES 2018
MalawiIGES 2018
MalaysiaIGES 2018
MaldivesIGES 2018
MaliIGES 2018
MaltaIEA 2013
Marshall IslandsIEA 2013
MauritaniaIGES 2018
MauritiusIGES 2018
MexicoIGES 2018
Micronesia, Federated States ofIEA 2013
MoldovaIEA 2013
MonacoIEA 2013
MongoliaIGES 2018
MontenegroIGES 2018
MoroccoIGES 2018
MozambiqueIGES 2018
NamibiaIGES 2018
NauruIEA 2013
NepalIGES 2018
NetherlandsIEA 2013
New ZealandIEA 2013
NicaraguaIGES 2018
NigerIGES 2018
NigeriaIGES 2018
NorwayIEA 2013
OmanIGES 2018
PakistanIGES 2018
PalauIEA 2013
PanamaIGES 2018
Papua New GuineaIGES 2018
ParaguayIGES 2018
PeruIGES 2018
PhilippinesIGES 2018
PolandIEA 2013
PortugalIEA 2013
QatarIGES 2018
RomaniaIEA 2013
RussiaIEA 2013
RwandaIGES 2018
Saint Kitts and NevisIGES 2018
Saint LuciaIGES 2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesIGES 2018
SamoaIEA 2013
San MarinoIEA 2013
Sao Tome and PrincipeIGES 2018
Saudi ArabiaIGES 2018
SenegalIGES 2018
SerbiaIGES 2018
SeychellesIGES 2018
Sierra LeoneIGES 2018
SingaporeIGES 2018
SlovakiaIEA 2013
SloveniaIEA 2013
Solomon IslandsIEA 2013
SomaliaIGES 2018
South AfricaIGES 2018
South SudanIGES 2018
SpainIEA 2013
Sri LankaIGES 2018
SudanIGES 2018
SurinameIGES 2018
SwazilandIGES 2018
SwedenIEA 2013
SwitzerlandIEA 2013
SyriaIGES 2018
TajikistanIGES 2018
TanzaniaIGES 2018
ThailandIGES 2018
Timor-LesteIGES 2018
TogoIGES 2018
TongaIEA 2013
Trinidad and TobagoIGES 2018
TunisiaIGES 2018
TurkeyIEA 2013
TurkmenistanIGES 2018
TuvaluIEA 2013
UgandaIGES 2018
UkraineIEA 2013
United Arab EmiratesIGES 2018
United KingdomIEA 2013
United StatesIEA 2013
UruguayIGES 2018
UzbekistanIGES 2018
VanuatuIEA 2013
VenezuelaIGES 2018
VietnamIGES 2018
YemenIGES 2018
ZambiaIGES 2018
ZimbabweIGES 2018